The hand is considered one of the most complex structures in the human body due to its intricate anatomy. Your hands are a complex system of various bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, nerves and blood vessels. Without the healthy functioning of the hand, we are unable to perform activities of daily living. The hand is one part of the body that is very susceptible to injury or disease. Some of these conditions include:
- Traumatic injuries: These may include fractures, tendon injuries, digit amputation or lacerations with nerve or blood vessel damage.
- Congenital deformities: These deformities are present at birth and may include congenital constriction band syndrome, overgrowth of digits, undergrowth of digits, duplication of digits, and failure of part of the hand to separate (syndactyly) and underdeveloped fingers or thumbs.
- Arthritis related deformities: In severe cases of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, the joints and fingers have a deformed appearance.
- Overuse injuries: These include carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger and DeQuervain’s Synovitis.
- Infections: Hand infections are commonly seen in people with diabetes as they have poor blood circulation in the extremities.
The intricate anatomy of the hand requires very delicate surgery, often with microscopic techniques. Microscopic hand surgery is a surgery performed on minute structures like nerves and blood vessels in the hands and fingers, with specially designed instruments, under a microscope. During the surgery, the damaged areas are repaired and reshaped. Microscopic hand surgery is also used to reattach severed fingers or hand. Moreover, flaps and grafts of bone, skin, muscle or other tissue from a healthy donor or the patient’s own body are often used for reconstruction of the affected structures. If required, small blood vessels are also repaired by using small needles with very fine sutures. The microscopic surgery improves the aesthetic appearance of the hand and also can restore the functionality of the hand. Rehabilitation therapy may be required in some cases.